~~ TIMELINE ~~
Compiled by K. R. Overholt Critchfield, 9-1-1999

~~ Timeline Updated & Renovated 12-12-05 ~~

NATIONAL AND ECONOMIC EVENTS
OVERHOLT FAMILY EVENTS

~~ Background ~~
The 16th & 17th Centuries

1517 -The Reformation begins when Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany
1519 -Ulrich Zwingli begins preaching biblical sermons at the Great Minster Church in Zurich, Switzerland
1525 -The Anabaptist movement begins in Zurich, Switzerland, with the first adult baptisms, the main issue being the church and its relation to civil governments; persecutions followed, and over the course of the Reformation, between four and five thousand Anabaptists are executed by fire, water, and sword
c1537 -Jakob Oberholtzer is born in Canton Zurich, the first Oberholtzer that appears in Swiss records; Jakob marries Annli Cuntz and has many children and grandchildren
1595 -Marti Oberholtzer (grandson of Jakob) is born
1607 -The English colony of Virginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith
1610 -Galileo Galilei reveals stellar observations made for the first time with a telescope
1618-1648 -The Thirty Years' War is prosecuted in Germany, rising from a quarrel between Roman Catholic and Protestant princes over who should become the next Holy Roman Emperor; warfare leaves cities ruined and millions dead
1618-1639 -Marti Oberholtzer fathers nine children (wife Margaretha Schellenberger); an Anabaptist preacher, he is drowned by Zwinglians
1620 -Pilgrim Fathers reach Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and found New Plymouth
1650-1663 -Swiss exit permits show Marti's sons -- Hans Jacob, Marx and Samuel -- are among a family group who leave Switzerland for the German Palatinate as tenant farmers; records identify them as "Taufers"
1664 -Marcus Oberholtzer (1664-1726) is born in Germany
1665 -Sir Isaac Newton discovers laws of gravitation, but does not publish his discoveries until 1686
1681 -William Penn (1644-1718) receives charter for the region he names Pennsylvania
1683 -Land agents for William Penn are advertising and selling large blocks of land in Pennsylvania

The 18th Century

1700 -New England’s population is approx.100,000
1702 -Anne is Queen of England
1702-13 -Queen Anne’s War
1706 -Twenty-six Overholt ancestors (male & female) have migrated to America
1707 -The Act of Union by England’s Queen Anne creates Great Britain
1709 -Martin Oberholtzer (1709-1744) is born in Germany and brought by his family to America that same year with the Jacob Wismer (1684-1787) movement
1711-13 -Tuscarora War (North Carolina)
1714 -George I is King of England
1715 -Yamasee War (South Carolina)
1720 -England controls most of eastern coastline
1732 -Georgia is chartered
1730-55 -German immigration from the Rhineland, usually landing in Philadelphia
1735-60s -The First Great Awakening in America
1739-48 -King George’s War
1739 -Henry Oberholtzer/Overhold (1739-1813) is born the second of 5 children of Martin and Agnes Kolb Oberholtzer
1746 -Marcus Oberholtzer (1701-1765), son of Marcus, is a signer of the deed for the Old Mennonite Church at Deep Run, Buck’s County, Pennsylvania
1754 -Albany Congress
-French and Indian War begins
1760 -American phase of war ends
-George III becomes King of England
1763 -Treaty of Paris
-Pontiac’s uprising
-Proclamation of 1763
1764 -Sugar Act
1765 -Stamp Act
-Sons of Liberty formed
1766 -Repeal of Stamp Act
-Declaratory Act
1767 -Townshend Acts
1770 -Repeal of Townshend duties except tea tax
-Boston Massacre
1772 -Boston Committee of Correspondence formed
1773 -Tea Act
-Boston Tea Party
1774 -Coercive Acts
-First Continental Congress
1775 -Battles of Lexington and Concord
-Second Continental Congress
-George Washington takes command of the Continental Army
c1775 -About 16 Overholts are listed on the muster rolls of Buck’s County, Pennsylvania
1776 -Thomas Paine, Common Sense
-British evacuate Boston
-Declaration of Independence
-New York campaign
1777 -British take Philadelphia
-Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga
1778 -French alliance
-British evacuate Philadelphia
1779 -Sullivan expedition against Iroquois villages
1780 -British take Charleston
1781 -Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown
1782 -Peace negotiations begin
1783 -Treaty of Paris
1784 -Abraham Overholt (1784-1870) is born in Buck’s County, Pennsylvania, the 10th of 12 children born to Henry & Anna Beitler Oberholtzer
1789 -George Washington is elected 1st President
1794 -The Whiskey Rebellion, Western Pennsylvania
1796 -John Adams is elected 2nd President

The 19th Century

1800 -Thomas Jefferson is elected 3rd President
-Henry Oberholtzer/Overhold (1739-1813) sells his Buck’s County homestead & moves his extended family to Westmoreland County
-The Second Great Awakening begins
1801 -Revival draws 10,000-25,000 people toCane Ridge, Kentucky
1801-05 -Tripoli War
1803 -Louisiana Purchase
1804-06 -Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804 -Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in a duel on July 11, at Weehawken, New Jersey
1807 -Embargo Act
-Fulton’s steamboat, Clermont
1808 -James Madison is elected 4th President
1810 -Abraham Overholt (1784-1870) begins distilling whiskey as a commercial product at West Overton, Pennsylvania
1812-15 -War of 1812
1813 -Boston Manufacturing Company founded
1814 -Treaty of Ghent
1814-15 -Hartford Convention
1815 -Battle of New Orleans
1816 -James Monroe is elected 5th President
-Second Bank of the United States Chartered
1818 -National Road reaches Wheeling, Virginia
1819-23 -Financial panic; depression
1820 -Missouri Compromise
1820s -New England textile mills expand
1823 -Monroe Doctrine
1824 -John Quincy Adams is elected 6th President
1825 -Erie Canal completed
1828 -Andrew Jackson is elected 7th President
1830 -Baltimore & Ohio Railroad begins operation
1831 -McCormick invents the reaper
1834 -Mill women strike at Lowell, Massachusetts
-The Overholt boys cease hauling grain to be milled when a brick flour mill is built at West Overton; mill operates for the next 25 years
1836 -Martin Van Buren is elected 8th President
1839-43 -Depression
1840 -William H. Harrison is elected 9th President
1841 -John Tyler is 10th President
1844 -Baltimore-Washington telegraph line
-James K. Polk is elected 11th President
1846 -War with Mexico
1848 -Zachary Taylor is elected 12th President
1849 -California gold rush
1850 -Millard Fillmore is 13th President
c1850 -Abraham Overholt brings sons Henry Stauffer Overholt & Jacob Stauffer Overholt into his whiskey business at West Overton
1852 -Franklin Pierce is elected 14th President
1853 -British study of American manufacturing
-Depression
1854 -Railroad reaches the Mississippi River
1856 -James Buchanan is elected 15th President
-Jacob Stauffer Overholt (1814-1859), son of Abraham Overholt, and his cousin Henry O. Overholt build a distillery at Broad Ford, Pennsylvania; they produce “Monogahela Whiskey” until Jacob’s death in 1859
1859 -John Brown raids Harper’s Ferry, VA
-Abraham Overholt buys Jacob’s 2/3 interest in the Broad Ford distillery & with partner Henry O. Overholt builds the six-story brick mill/distillery building at West Overton, PA, operating as “A. Overholt & Co.” with a daily capacity of 200 bushels of grain & 860 gallons of whiskey
-Oil discovered at Titusville in northwest Pennsylvania
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman (1834-1915), a grandson of Abraham Overholt, buys 600 acres of coal land near Broad Ford with his partner Joseph Rist
1860 -Abraham Lincoln is elected 16th President
-South Carolina secedes from the Union
-President Lincoln’s favorite whiskey is known to be Overholt Whiskey
-“A. Overholt & Co. Whiskey” is the product produced by the West Overton & Broad Ford distilleries
1861-65 -American Civil War
1863 -Emancipation Proclamation
-Battle of Gettysburg, PA
1863 -Abraham Overholt composes his Last Will & Testament in West Overton, PA
-At age 14, Henry Clay Frick clerks at his Uncle Christian S. Overholt’s store in West Overton
1864 -Abraham Overholt makes his grandson Abraham Overholt Tinstman (A. O. Tinstman) a partner in his firm “A. Overholt & Co.”
1865 -Lee surrenders at Appomattox
-At age 16, Henry Clay Frick moves to Mt. Pleasant to clerk for his uncle Martin Overholt; for the next three years, he lives & works there, attends college sporadically, & attends the Baptist Church
-President Lincoln is assassinated
-Andrew Johnson is 17th President
-President Johnson begins Reconstruction
1866-67 -Jacob Stauffer Overholt’s distillery at Broad Ford is torn down and replaced with a new facility owned by Abraham Overholt and his partner/nephew Henry O. Overholt
1867 -U.S. purchase of Alaska
1868 -Ulysses S. Grant is elected 18th President
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman (in partnership with Col. A. S. M. Morgan) opens the Morgan mines and engages exclusively in making coke
-Abraham Overholt loans his grandson Abraham Overholt Tinstman (A. O. Tinstman) $20,000 to invest in the lucrative Morgan Mines in Broad Ford Run Valley
-Henry O. Overholt leaves “A. Overholt & Co.” and Abraham Overholt Tinstman buys his interest in the firm
-In Mt. Pleasant, Henry Clay Frick is suddenly fired; upon returning to West Overton, his grandfather, Abraham Overholt, takes him to the Broad Ford distillery, where his cousin Abraham Overholt Tinstman hires him as anoffice boy at $25 per month
-Christian Overholt secures a position for his
nephew, Henry Clay Frick, at Pittsburgh’s Macrum and Carlisle, where he, at 19, clerks in the linen & lace department for $6/week; after borrowing $50 (from a relative), he buys a new suit of clothes & attends the first Presbyterian Church built by Asa P. Childs
-Shortly after starting a new job at another Pittsburgh establishment, Henry Clay Frick contracts typhoid fever & returns to West Overton to receive care, administered by his mother, grandmother & sister; afterwards, he works at the West Overton distillery as a salesman & helps the bookkeeper, working 3 months without pay
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman hires Henry Clay Frick at the Broad Ford distillery “to take care of the office” at a salary of $1,000 per year (i.e., roughly $83 per month)
1869 -First transcontinental railroad is Union Pacific
1870 -The Mellon Bank is founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by retired judge Thomas Mellon (who has acquired his fortune in investments solidified by requiring judgments on mortgages & personal security loans, using "debt without writ" documents which allowed an attorney or court officer to confess judgment & seize the debtor's property without the fuss of a trial)
-Abraham Overholt (1784-1870) dies the morning of January 15, on his West Overton farm, leaving an estate of about $350,000 to his heirs
-Henry Stauffer Overholt ((1810-1870), eldest of Abraham Overholt's children & joint owner with him of the West Overton distillery, mill & farm, retires & dissolves the brief partnership between himself & his father's executors (his brothers Christian Stauffer Overholt & Martin Stauffer Overholt, and cousin Jacob Overholt Tinstman)
-Henry Stauffer Overholt dies June 18, 1870
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman organizes & builds the Mt. Pleasant & Broad Ford Railroad connecting with the Pittsburgh & Connellsville Railroad at Broad Ford; he continues as president until selling the entire road to the B & O Railroad in 1876
1871 -Abraham Overholt Tinstman forms another coke company, associated with Joseph Rist & Henry Clay Frick, under the firm name of Frick & Company; they build 200 coke ovens; later the site is known as the “Novelty” and the “Henry Clay Works”
-Henry Clay Frick goes to Pittsburgh, where unannounced, he asks to see Thomas Mellon at his Mellon Bank; seemingly on the basis of Mellon’s youthful friendship with Elizabeth Overholt (Frick’s mother), the Overholt family name & reputation, and Frick’s business accumen, he comes away with $10,000 at 10% interest for six months -- to build 50 coke ovens; later he obtains another $10,000 before the first loan is paid off
1873 -Comstock Lode, silver discovery in Navada
-In May, panic strikes the bourse in Vienna & it spreads through the exchanges in Europe (which were overloaded with stocks & bonds in American ventures, mostly railroads); reckless investment in America ends & Europe plunges into recession; by September the financial crisis impacts America with panic at the N.Y. Stock Exchange, then bank failures
1873-78 -Depression
1873 -Abraham Overholt Tinstman suffers a total loss in the financial panic of 1873
1874 -By spring, the aftermath of the financial panic reaches Broad Ford, where Henry Clay Frick is selling coke well below the cost of producing it; rival coke operators & even Frick’s partners sell out at depressed prices; farmers trade land for cash in almost any amount; Frick covers his operating deficit by peddling his notes & using his mother’s inheritance to option land
-Acting alone & on his own initiative, Henry Clay Frick tracks down the stockholders of his cousin Abraham Overholt Tinstman’s Broad Ford railroad, obtains their signatures on options, then offers the B & O Railroad a deal they cannot refuse -- the Broad Ford railroad at cost ($200,000), earning himself a $50,000 commission in the bargain
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman & his partner Morgan seek to consolidate their lucrative Morgan mines with Frick & Company; Frick offers $550,000 against the $650,000 asking price & the deal does not go through
-In December, the widow of Abraham Overholt (Maria Stauffer Overholt, 83) dies at West Overton; she is the mother of 8, the grandmother of 48 (including Henry Clay Frick) & the great-grandmother of 25
1875 -Abraham Overholt Tinstman purchases the 2/3 interest of the deceased Abraham Overholt in the firm of “A. Overholt & Co.,” including the right to use the name as a brand & trade mark
-By February, Henry Clay Frick is critically ill in another round of inflammatory rheumatism; his relatives move him from his Broad Ford shack to a room in Abraham Overholt’s Homestead house, where he is washed & dressed daily like an infant; a full year passes before he returns to health
-By October, Henry Clay Frick has the deed to the Morgan Mines executed & delivered to the partners A. O. Tinstman & Morgan -- leaving open for them the possibility of recovery by stipulating that if within 2 years, Tinstman repays the notes (amounting to $60,000) together with any interest on the $10,000 note, the “deed of conveyance should become null and void”
-Secured by the B & O Railroad deal, Henry Clay Frick further strengthens his financial base by paying his employees in “Frick dollar bills” & building his first “company store”
1876 -Gold rush in the Black Hills
-Rutherford B. Hayes elected 19th President
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman sells his interest in “A. Overholt & Co.” to brother Christian Stauffer Overholt Tinstman (C.S.O.Tinstman, another son of Abraham Overholt’s daughter Anna), together with the right to use the firm name as a brand & trade mark
c1876 -Christian Stauffer Overholt Tinstman & Christopher Fritchman become partners in the firm “A. Overholt & Co.”
-Henry Clay Frick’s borrowing from T. Mellon & Sons reaches $100,000, but he has acquired 60% of the coal acreage & he is producing 80% of the coke from the region, setting his own prices & earning 100% over costs
1877 -Henry Clay Frick trades acre for acre the surface rights of 4 farms for all the coal on the Morewood farm; Frick then opens a “company store” at Morewood, which eventually rakes in profits of 80 to 100 thousand dollars
-First national strike over Pennsylvania Railroad labor practices leads to riots, looting & deaths, which forever polarizes America between the antagonistic forces of capital & labor
-Henry Clay Frick warns strikers to vacate the shacks on Tinsman’s old railroad; later Frick, with a deputy, personally evicts James King, throwing him into a creek

-Abraham Overholt Tinstman is unable to buy back his interest in the Morgan Mines, so the mines officially become the property of Henry Clay Frick
1878 -Christian Stauffer Overholt Tinstman & partner Christopher Fritchman (owners of an undivided 2/3 interest in the firm “A. Overholt & Co.” and lessees of the other 1/3 interest from the First National Bank of Uniontown) take into co-partnership with them James G. Pontefract for the term of one year (from August 1, 1878 to August 1, 1879) & by renewal to April 1, 1881
-Henry Clay Frick sells shares in Frick & Co. to Edmund M. Ferguson, then to Walton Ferguson the following year, renaming the business H. C. Frick & Company; Frick suffers another bout of inflammatory rheumatism & stays at Edmund M. Ferguson’s house in Pittsburgh for a year while recovering
1879 -Thomas Edison perfects the incandescent light bulb
-Coal mining & coke production makes the agrarian culture fade away, as trees die from the smoke of coke furnaces & large sink holes appear in local pastures as mines collapse; miners & beehive oven workers suffer death in accidents or lose their health because of polluted air below & above ground; the once-fresh streams & rivers are now polluted; typhoid becomes a leading cause of death
-On December 19, Henry Clay Frick quietly celebrates his 30th birthday by buying (on credit) a Havana cigar; he had accomplished his life’s ambition of being worth a million dollars
1880 -James A. Garfield is elected 20th President
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman sells 3,500 acres of coal land at a good profit, then buys a half interest in the Rising Sun Coke Works & then establishes the firm of “A.O. Tinstman & Co.” in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
-Building project #3 commences at Broad Ford distillery; by utilizing coal for steam power, the daily capacity increases to 800 bushels of grain and 3,450 gallons of whiskey
1880s -Large numbers of Eastern European & S. European immigrants begin to arrive in U.S.
-Spread of flush toilets in U.S.
-Acceptance of germ theory of disease
-Mass production of tin cans begins
1881 -Chester A. Arthur is 21st President
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman acquires the Mt. Braddock & Pennsville Coke Works
-First federal trademark law, which enables producers to register & protect brand names
-With a document dated March 1, Henry Clay Frick obtains from the executors of Abraham Overholt (i.e., Martin Stauffer Overholt & Christian Stauffer Overholt) the right to use the “A. Overholt & Co.” name “at the distillery property in Connellsville township, Fayette County, PA,” for the consideration of one dollar “and other good and valuable considerations”
-On March 12, partners C. S. O. Tinstman & Christopher Fritchman enter into another agreement with James G. Pontefract, granting him (for 2 years, until April 1, 1883) the right to use the name of the firm “A. Overholt & Co.” and the various brands at the distillery
-According to Henry Clay Frick, before the lease expires on April 1, he has purchased the undivided 1/3 interest in the firm “A. Overholt & Co.” from the First National Bank of Uniontown “and others”
-By March 23, Henry Clay Frick owns the undivided 2/3 of “a certain tract of land in Connellsville Township, Fayette County, PA” on which are erected a distillery, warehouse, and other improvements, and known as the “A. Overholt & Co. Distillery” and James G. Pontefract owns the undivided 1/3 interest; Frick leases the site to Pontefract for 5 years to “manufacture, storage and sale of whiskey on said premises”
-According to Henry Clay Frick, by the latter part of March 1881, he has purchased the undivided 2/3 interest in the Broad Ford distillery property, including all brands and marks from C.S.O. Tinstman & C. Fritchman
-According to his testimony, on April 1, Henry Clay Frick leased the firm “A.Overholt & Co.” to James G. Pontefract to make and mark “whiskey manufactured thereat”
-On or about April 1, according to their own testimony, C. S. O. Tinstman & C. Fritchman acknowledge that they ceased to own the business & distillery property [at Broad Ford?], but they still maintain the validity of their lease granted to James G. Pontefract for the use of the firm name “A. Overholt & Co.” until April 1, 1883
1882-83 -Three more transcontinental railroad routes
1883 -On April 1, C. S. O. Tinstman and C. Fritchman expect James G. Pontefract to surrender the rights leased to him for the use of the name “A. Overholt & Co.” but Pontefract does not comply; Tinstman & Fritchman sue Pontefract
1884 -Grover Cleveland is elected 22nd President
-Abraham Overholt Tinstman sells all his coke interests and engages in the purchase of coal lands in Western Pennsylvania & West Virginia
1884-85 -Depression
1886 -The suit filed by C. S. O. Tinstman and C. Fritchman against James G. Pontefract reaches the Supreme Court on June 17 [U.S. Supreme Court or PA Supreme Court?]
1888 -Benjamin Harrison is elected 23rd President
1889 -Thomas Edison invents motion-picture camera and viewing device
-The Johnstown Flood
-The Johnstown Flood implicates H. C. Frick
1890s -Electric trolleys replace horse-driven mass transit systems
1892 -Homestead Steel strike
-Homestead Strike impacts H. C. Frick
-Grover Cleveland is elected 24th President
1893-97 -Depression
1896 -William McKinley is elected 25th President
1893 -Great Northern Railroad completed
1899 -Another building project commences, with the entire plant at Broad Ford being dismantled & reconstructed & adding new rack warehouses; the construction is finished by 1905

The 20th Century

1900s -Rise in popularity of vaudeville
1900-10 -Peak years of immigration
1900 -Gold Standard Act
-U.S. exports total $1.5 billion
1901 -United States Steel Corp. founded
-Assassination of President William McKinley
-Theodore Roosevelt is 26th President
1903 -First baseball World Series
1905 -The plant at the Broad Ford distillery has a daily capacity of 1,500 bushels of grain & 6,450 gallons of whiskey
1906 -Pure Food and Drug Act
-U.S. invades Cuba
1907 -Economic Panic
1908 -William H. Taft is elected 27th President
1909 -NAACP is founded
1910 -Motion pictures have become an art form
-Mexican revolution begins
1912 -Woodrow Wilson is elected 28th President
-U.S. troops enter Cuba again
-U.S. troops occupy Nicaragua
1913 -First moving assembly line, Ford Motor Co.
1914 -Federal Trade Commission Act
-Clayton Anti-Trust Act
-U.S. troops invade Mexico
-First World War begins
-Panama Canal opens
1915 -D. W. Griffith’s film, The Birth of a Nation
1916 -U.S. troops invade Mexico again
1917 -U.S. entry into First World War
-Selective Service Act
-Espionage Act
-War Industries Board created
1918 -U.S. troops at Chateau-Thierry
-U.S. troops intervene in Russia
-Flu epidemic
-Armistice
-Henry Clay Frick & R. B. Mellon are partners in the firm “A. Overholt & Co.” at Broad Ford; on March 28, Mellon writes to Frick about the “110,000,000 gallons of beverage spirits of all kinds,” and speculates about profits after being ordered to shut down [due to Prohibition]
1919 -Steel Strike undermined by “steel barons”
-Eighteenth Amendment ratified (Prohibition)
-Overholt Distillery at West Overton is shut down due to Prohibition, but the Broad Ford distillery remains in operation “for medicinal purposes,” with a capacity of 1,800 bushels of grain & 7,700 gallons of whiskey per day; later the capacity rises to 2,270 bushels of grain & 9,760 gallons of whiskey per day
-On December 2, Henry Clay Frick dies at his home in New York City, and is buried three days later in Pittsburgh, PA, following a private funeral, attended by Andrew Mellon, the executor of his will; Frick leaves one-sixth of his fortune to his family, and the rest is bequeathed to charitable institutions in New York, Pittsburgh, and the West Overton-Connellsville Coke Region
1920 -Majority of Americans (51.4%) live in cities
-Warren G. Harding is elected 29th President
-First commercial radio broadcast
1920-21 -Postwar deflation and depression
1921 -Federal Highway Act
-Immigration quotas established
1922 -Economic recovery
-Mussolini comes to power in Italy
1923 -Calvin Coolidge is 30th President
1925 -Fundamentalism vs. science in Scopes trial
1926 -American troops occupy Nicaragua
1927 -Charles Lindbergh’s transatlantic flight
-First sound movie, The Jazz Singer
1928 -Stock market soars
-Herbert C. Hoover is elected 31st President
1929-33 -100,000 American businesses fail
-Corporate profits fall from $10 billion to
$1 billion
-Gross National Product is cut in half
1929 -Onset of the Great Depression
-Federal Farm Board created
-Stock market crash
1930 -Six million Americans are jobless; millions
more are under-employed
1931 -Japan seizes Manchuria
-Stock market crash
1932 -Ford Hunger March in Dearborn
-Bonus March on Washington, D.C.
-Franklin D. Roosevelt elected 32nd President
1933 -13 million Americans are unemployed
-Nine million savings accounts have been lost, amounting to $2.5 billion in losses
-Beer-Wine Revenue Bill
-Agriculture Adjustment Act
-Tennessee Valley Authority established
-National Industrial Recovery Act
-Hitler comes to power in Germany
-U.S. recognition of Soviet Russia
-Good Neighbor policy announced
-U.S. subverts Cuban revolution
-Film King Kong released
-21st Amendment ratified (repeals Prohibition)
1935 -National Labor Relations Act
-Social Security Act
-Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
-Italy invades Ethiopia
-Neutrality Act


The Old Overholt Whiskey article was probably written in 1935.


END OF TIMELINE -- Go back to "Karen's Branches"