OLD OVERHOLT: The History of A Whiskey, Part III
Author Unknown, Edited & Expanded by K. R. Overholt Critchfield, 9-1-1999

~~ Part Three Updated & Renovated 12-10-05 ~~

Changes Over Time

The story of Overholt Whiskey is soon completed, yet the facts and circumstances that are yet necessary to round out the history are so intriguing and astonishing as to rival fiction. Naturally, it would be expected that a business which has lived so long and has grown to such great proportions would experience many changes in ownership, which it has. By 1890, the Overholt Distillery was passing out of the immediate control of the Overholt Family, and by this is meant the direct descendants of Abraham Overholt. Henry Clay Frick had come into an interest by inheritance ["by inheritance" is not accurate; see attachments (Addenda). -ed.] and by this time, being a capitalist, he had the means to acquire full control. He knew the business and its worth. He had clerked there and was familiar with every detail. [By the year 1881, Henry Clay Frick was the sole owner of A. Overholt & Sons at the Broad Ford site -- the distillery, property, name, brands, trademarks, tools and machinery -- literally, lock, stock and barrel(s). In 1887, he sold one-third interest to Andrew W. Mellon, and later, there were others who were partners and owners (see details below).] Also, it might be imagined that having prospered so long in one geographical area, the business would serve as a hub for the growth of other businesses, which is not the case, except in a relative sense.

If one goes exploring around and about the vicinity of Broad Ford, he will find the evidences of other important industrial undertakings in this region. Both in this locality, and throughout the whole of Fayette and Westmoreland counties, he will see miles and miles of brick beehive coke ovens. A few of these still operate, but the great majority of them are falling to ruin.

A four-mile strip of these ovens were built in a lateral valley, which opened on the flatland at Broad Ford, and for many years, Broad Ford was a mining and coaling center of great activity. The fields of the entire region are crossed and re-crossed by railroad tracks, with as many as eight and ten tracks together. Time was when tens of thousands of coal and coke cars daily moved through the region. The whole territory was scarred and torn, and if one stood on the mountains at night, it would be easy to imagine that a million pixies in the valleys below were tending so many campfires!

One man had made all this activity possible, and curiously enough, he had a family connection to the Overholts, and who, as a youth, clerked in the Broad Ford Overholt Distillery office. He was Henry Clay Frick. Like Abraham Overholt years before, Clay Frick was interested in the coal that first was discovered on the Overholt farm. Moreover, young Frick had been slipping across the fields to an adjoining farm, where a German was experimenting with a small oven. So much was his faith in those experiments that Frick supported them financially with his own savings.

One day, the German scraped the residue from the cooling oven and said, “That multiplies the ordinary heat of coal many times!” “What may it be used for?” asked Frick. “To make steel, for one thing,” was the reply. “Steel!!” echoed Frick, the word almost a whisper.

As young Abraham Overholt had done, working daily at his loom, pondering over the events of the Whiskey Rebellion, and so correctly appraising the early attitude of the government toward whiskey distillation and excise taxation -- so, too, did young Clay Frick, working daily at his ledger books in the Broad Ford Distillery office, pondering over the momentous possibilities of coke production. The decisions he made were almost immediate, and in the evenings, after finishing the accounts at the Distillery, Frick began touring throughout the whole region -- sometimes on horseback, sometimes in a buckboard -- calling upon farmers. He optioned coal land right and left, and when his savings were exhausted, he optioned with the payment of hand money, borrowing from everywhere he could.

In this way, young Clay Frick rushed about the whole night long, carrying sheaves of promissory notes in his coat pocket, continually optioning, optioning! Soon his needs took him beyond dealing with the country banks. However, he knew Judge Thomas Mellon (1813-1908) had a bank in Pittsburgh. He knew the Mellon family once lived in Westmoreland County. Incidentally, in the old days, the Mellon farm had its own distillery -- a fact that turned out to be important in later years, particularly as regards this history.

Born April 19, 1784, Bucks County, PA
Died January 15, 1870, West Overton, PA
Buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery,
Mount Pleasant, PA

In 1871, Frick went to Pittsburgh, showed Judge Mellon his options, and arranged banking connections. Young Andrew W. Mellon was in his father’s bank at that time, and one day was called in on the deal, and eventually, he and the new customer became very good friends.

Frick’s Eye for Coke: Until 1880, Pittsburgh’s economy revolved around iron produced in blast furnaces fed by coke made from bituminous coal, whose rich seams literally undergirded the city and the outlying river valleys. That year, however, about fifteen miles east of the city, Andrew Carnegie’s huge Edgar Thomson Works poured the first heat of steel from a Bessemer converter. That started Pittsburgh’s rise as the steel capital of the world. The Judge had already had a minor role in the preparation for that historic event. One of the first loans made by T. Mellon & Sons was to the twenty-one-year-old grandson of a Pennsylvania Dutch distiller in Westmoreland County. This was Henry Clay Frick, who before the Judge was dead would become Carnegie’s partner, then Carnegie’s rival and enemy, and for a while, Carnegie’s successor as the most powerful personality in U.S. industry.

In the early 1870’s, Frick sought a loan of $10,000 to build beehive coke ovens and buy coal mines in the Connellsville district. Judge Mellon had been quietly accumulating on his own account thousands of acres of coal lands in western Pennsylvania; he was impressed by young Frick’s forecast of the demand for coke that the steel business would create. Over the next several years, he advanced Frick enough money to enable the H. C. Frick Coke Co. to become the dominant supplier of coke to the steel business. Andrew, who was five years younger than Frick, caught the fancy of the rising magnate. They became friends and eventually partners; but the Judge, while he was willing to do business with Frick and Carnegie as a banker, never put serious money into steel. Instead, he boldly rode the boom in real estate -- for plant sites, office buildings, and housing -- which was a secondary consequence of the steel expansion. In 1882, on the eve of his sixty-ninth birthday, the Judge gave over the bank to Andrew. . . . [“The Mellons of Pittsburgh,” Fortune Magazine, October 1967, Time, Inc., Chicago, IL]

Foundations for a Business Life: It is interesting to speculate why a city banker, enjoying ample opportunities to make loans to local iron and special steel firms in a period of expansion, should have responded to a request from a very young man from the country districts who had little experience in the trade for which he wanted the money. Several reasons may be suggested. Mellon’s father, Andrew, had come from Ireland in 1818 and had settled in Westmoreland County, where he became friendly with Abraham Overholt. Thomas had known Clay’s mother, Elizabeth, when she was a girl. Family background may explain how Clay gained his appointment with Thomas Mellon, but his own qualities account for his success once there. It is not clear what he could offer as collateral, but the demand for coke was rising impressively, and the ex-judge was shrewd enough to realize that both the trade and the applicant were sound. A man who once remarked of his own courtship, “Had I been rejected, I would have felt neither sad nor depressed, nor greatly disappointed, only annoyed at the loss of time,” must have warmed at once to the zeal, directness, and unremitting commitment to business that was shown by the young Clay Frick. [Triumphant Capitalism: Henry Clay Frick & the Industrial Transformation of America, by Kenneth Warren, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, 1996]

Henry Clay Frick began to make coke, and he found a market for it in the steel mills in and around Pittsburgh, and at Johnstown in Cambria County. The business prospered and all the towns in Westmoreland and Fayette counties -- in fact, all of Western Pennsylvania -- began to thrive. Trainloads of coal! Trainloads of coke! Day and night, through every season of the year, the product Frick took from hill and oven went to settlements in all parts of the country. Frick built his own railroads. He built his own bridges. One of those bridges, a modern steel structure, spans the Youghiogheny River at Broad Ford at the exact point where young George Washington had waded across -- the “Crossing Place” of the Indians. [I cannot tell, by current maps of the area, whether this bridge still stands. -ed.] And if, to save time on a long haul, the other railroad companies serving the coal and coke districts wished to shunt trains across this Broad Ford bridge, they were allowed to do so -- at one dollar per car! Frick was a good businessman.

It is germane to this story to understand how one business enterprise may give birth to and support another, and how the latter may become a thousand times greater than the former, and yet --! Frick’s development of the coal fields had the effect of greatly enlarging and diversifying the population of the hundreds of towns in Fayette and Westmoreland counties. The chief occupation of labor was in the mines, and at the coke ovens. This activity created needs which employed others in a hundred and one different capacities -- railroad building and railroad maintenance, brick-making and masonry for ovens, machinery and maintenance for the mines, and so on, until in the last computations, the butchers, bakers and candlestick makers who served all of them. All these occupations were hung on the two-stranded string of coal and coke.

H. C. Frick & Company: By the end of 1879, the company was employing a thousand people and shipping out a hundred cars full of coke every day. On December 19 of that year Clay Frick celebrated his thirtieth birthday by going over the books and discovering that he had already achieved his life’s ambition: he was worth a million dollars. On his way to his frugal bachelor quarters in the Washabaugh Hotel, he dropped into the Mt. Pleasant store where he had started clerking sixteen years before and indulged his only vice by buying a five-cent Havana cigar. [Henry Clay Frick: The Gospel of Greed, Samuel A. Schreiner, Jr., St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY, 1995]

Pittsburgh, Marriage and Carnegie: . . . Frick moved his home from the coke region to Pittsburgh, renting rooms in March 1881 at the Monongahela House, then reckoned one of the city’s best residential hotels. In the “season,” Frick and [Andrew] Mellon -- both normally taciturn men -- became largely involved in the functions of Pittsburgh’s social round, and in the late spring of 1881, Clay met Adelaide Howard, the daughter of Asa P. Childs, a man whose wealth had come from the import and the manufacture of footwear. The Childs home, at Halket and Forbes Streets was then regarded as one of the show pieces of the city. Clay fell in love with Adelaide, and three months later they announced their engagement. They were married on Thursday, 15 December 1881, in what was described by a local paper as “one of the most notable weddings of the season.” Frick was fortunate in the family life that he and Adelaide now embarked upon . . . it was during their honeymoon visit to the East Coast that Frick first met Andrew Carnegie and their business association began. [Triumphant Capitalism: Henry Clay Frick & the Industrial Transformation of America, Kenneth Warren, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996]

Honeymoons and . . . : Carnegie feared Frick’s coke monopoly, had never met Frick, but had used Frick coke for his Lucy Furnaces and his Edgar Thomson rail mill. When the Fricks came to their honeymoon luncheon with Carnegie and his mother, unknown to anyone but Carnegie and Frick, one-half of Frick’s coke works were already placed in the partnership. When five foot two Carnegie rose to his feet to toast the Fricks, he surprised both Adelaide and his own mother by telling them that he and Mr. Frick (who was also five foot two) had entered into partnership. Although the partnership did not become final until April 1882, H. C. Frick and Company -- renamed the H. C. Frick Coke Company -- would be the exclusive supplier of coke for Carnegie’s steel mills. Frick would receive shares in Carnegie Brothers and Company (a consolidation of Edgar Thomson and the Lucy Furnaces), and in exchange, by 1883 Carnegie would become the majority shareholder of the H. C. Frick Coke Company -- something that appealed to Frick because he would be able to settle the last of his debts from both his earlier coking enterprise and his investment in South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club . . . in January 1989 . . . Frick was elected chairman of Carnegie Brothers . . . Although Frick now owned the long-coveted shares in Carnegie’s steel concern, headed a division on one of the largest steel operations in the world, and was one of the most powerful men in Pittsburgh, a growing shadow in business and family life stalked his every new gain. [Henry Clay Frick: An Intimate Portrait, Martha Frick Symington Sanger, Abbeville Press, New York, NY, 1998]

With coke and limestone being such important ingredients in steel making, the coke fields and limestone quarries developed an importance in proportion to the amazing growth of the steel industry. The age of steel had arrived! The rich towns in Western Pennsylvania were the coal and the mill towns. Businesses in the cities, especially Pittsburgh, fattened on the enormous payrolls. And then, following the war cloud of 1914, came a smaller cloud which proved ill for the coke towns, while it had a silver lining for the steel industry, itself: the by-product oven. The by-product oven eliminated the need for beehive ovens to make coke. Andrew W. Mellon had purchased the German patents at an auction at Koppers, held by the alien property custodian. While the beehive oven only made coke, the by-product oven made coke, plus it trapped every other substance hidden in coal -- perfumes, medicines, dyes, gases, and so on.

Changes in Coke Technology: . . . the question of technological change in coke making became a lively issue in the 1890s. Slot ovens had replaced the old beehives in continental Europe because their narrow dimensions made it possible to coke the inferior coking coals that predominated there. A major additional benefit was gained in the form of chemicals extracted in recovery plants that were increasingly and soon invariably attached to the new batteries of slot-type oven -- hence the common name, by-product oven. An abundance of excellent coking coals and a lesser need to use coal derivatives for fertilizers, dyes, or tar, or to burn oven gas in industrial regions that could easily pipe in natural gas were the considerations that largely explained the much delayed switch to the new technology in the United States. However, by the 1890s, by-product coking was becoming increasingly attractive. The weight and prestige of the H. C. Frick Coke Company was thrown into the balance against the new technology. . . Frick’s sustained hostility to the new process may have owed something to his realization that it would undermine Connellsville’s position, as well as his doubts about its economic viability . . . However, after the turn of the century, he witnessed the uneven but inexorable advance of this new technology, and in the last years of his life, he had to recognize that it could no longer be rationally fought. [Triumphant Capitalism: Henry Clay Frick and the Industrial Transformation of America, Kenneth Warren, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996]

In one of the many deals between Frick and his friend, Andrew W. Mellon, one-third interest in the Overholt Distillery was sold to Mellon. In 1919, at Frick’s death, Mellon got a second third interest as trustee. Thus, Mellon had control of the Overholt Distillery when, under President Harding, he became Secretary of the Treasury the first time. As Fate would have it, Mellon sat in the chair first occupied by Alexander Hamilton, who once marched to Western Pennsylvania to put down the Whiskey Rebellion -- the very conflict which first started Abraham Overholt to thinking about producing whiskey for the market. It was a complete circle, but now Andrew W. Mellon had Prohibition on his hands.

Born December 19, 1849, West Overton, PA
Died December 2, 1919, New York, NY
Buried December 5, 1919
Homewood Cemetery, Pittsburgh, PA

“H.C. FRICK LAID TO REST . . . ”: The morning of the funeral, Friday, December 5 . . . At noon, the service commenced . . . Coincidentally, there were many other endings. The League of Nations, opposed by Frick, was defeated. Walker D. Hines announced the railroads would be returned to their owners on December 28 with a heavy rate increase, far exceeding Frick’s recommendation. Andrew Carnegie, whose mind had been failing for years, had died in August. Carnegie had given over $350 million in his lifetime to social and educational concerns, and now, the fortune Frick had made was also about to be redistributed in charitable form.

By 1921, byproduct ovens had supplanted the beehive ovens in the coke-making process. Frick’s mines, though eventually depleted of coal, would continue to earn a profit for U.S. Steel with their gas and other minerals. His filing and map system would prove so efficient, even today it is used, rather than a computer.

The Overholt Distillery would stay open at Broad Ford for medicinal purposes, while the original distillery at West Overton was closed because of prohibition. . . .On December 3, the same day Frick’s remains returned to 1 East Seventieth Street for the brief memorial service, Alexander Berkman was arrested in Chicago by the U.S. Department of Labor for deportation to Russia because of his communist leanings, articles in radical newspapers, and advocacy of violence. The government considered him an “enem[y] of the United States of America and of its peace and comfort.” . . . In further irony, at noon on December 5, as Frick’s funeral service began, Berkman surrendered himself to authorities on Ellis Island, where he waited with hundreds of other immigrant radicals for his December 21 deportation. [Henry Clay Frick: An Intimate Portrait, Martha Frick Symington Sanger, Abbeville Press, New York, NY, 1998]

Of the further business changes, they are so recent [circa 1935 -ed.] that they need not be recorded in detail. Suffice it to say that Mr. Seton Porter obtained control of the Overholt Company for his National Distillers, Inc.

Trademark Assignment

Currently, Jim Beam Brands Co. holds the trademark rights to label OLD OVERHOLT, the name A. Overholt & Company, and "a portrait of A. Overholt, now deceased." The product is being distilled somewhere in Kentucky. On April 27, 2005, I found online the Trademark Assignment Abstract of Title that shows "Registrant" A. Overholt & Company (Filing Dt: 10/30/1929, Reg. Dt: 3/11/1930) has had three assignments:

(1) CHANGE OF NAME: "Assignor" National Distillers Products Corporation to "Assignee" National Distillers and Chemical Corporation (Exec Dt: 5/1/1957, Recorded: 5/23/1957);

(2) ASSIGNS THE ENTIRE INTEREST AND THE GOODWILL: "Assignor" National Distillers and Chemical Corporation, "Assignee" James B. Beam Distilling Co. (Exec Dt: 5/26/1987, Recorded: 6/15/1987);

(3) CHANGE OF NAME: "Assignor" James B. Beam Distilling Co., "Assignee" Jim Beam Brands Co. (Exec Dt: 5/16/1988, Recorded: 8/4/1988).

Other records reveal it was August 1, 1888, when a "portrait of A. Overholt, now deceased" was first used in commerce. The filing date of the "portrait" was October 30, 1929; the registration date was March 11, 1930. Jim Beam Brands Co. Corporation registered a 4th renewal on September 16, 2000.

The online Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS) noted "Change of Correspondence Received" on March 16, 2004.

Modern Broad Ford and the Overholt Distillery
[circa 1935]

And now, to return to Broad Ford, where stands the Overholt Distillery at the “crossing place” of the Indians. It is a clean-looking outfit, the buildings being of a light amber-colored brick. There are the large, round grain towers . . . the great mysterious-looking government warehouses . . . the modern bottling plant . . . and, in front, a neat, but not large, three-story brick office building. The town of Broad Ford, itself, has greatly changed in the last twenty-five years. During the coal and coke boom, it became a noisy, crowded mining town, with company houses encroaching to the very gates of the Overholt Distillery. Leading away from Broad Ford, every valley was then lined with row upon row of coke ovens. The bricks that went into building these ovens must have numbered hundreds or millions! But these things do not exist anymore. The by-product oven swept through that region like a plague! Hard times came a-knocking at the doors of the miner’s cabins. Merchants struggled, and then failed. Eventually, tall weeds obscured the four, five and six-track railroad shipping systems.

And as one turns away from Broad Ford, and traverses the long valley leading toward Scottdale (on the route Abraham’s boys drove their oxen to the mill) one can see a stretch of abandoned coke ovens several miles long. The arched roofs have tumbled in and nature is spreading her scar tissue over to conceal them -- in a few years, they will be obliterated without any assistance from man. Were it not for the fact that better record is kept today of times, manners and events, some future generation, coming upon the buried ruins of Frick’s coke ovens, might believe they had unearthed some ancient catacombs, or something like that. To ponder today upon the speed with which Nature is affecting the scars of industry is to lose amazement over news that some museum curator has unearthed a deeply buried tomb in Egypt. Only Time is necessary for the same thing to happen on the banks of the “Yough.”

And so, in this physical manner, too, the circle is complete -- the Overholt Distillery is the only industry at Broad Ford, once more. The company houses have disappeared and the miners are gone. Only this modern representation of a promise for the future -- of a business begun a hundred and twenty-five years ago -- remains today. Yes, the community of Broad Ford is slipping back to the old days, but the Overholt Distillery, enlarged and expanded, looks forward to the future. Every day, nearly ten thousand gallons of Overholt Whiskey go into charred white oak barrels, which are then racked away to age for four and eight years. But the whiskey is made in the same manner as when it was running through a ‘still worm in the original Overholt cabin. The same materials, the same proportions, the same yeast cultures, the same treatment to make the distillery beer which, by the process of distillation, becomes whiskey -- all are the order of today’s manufacture.

And we deliver the same elements which make for the individuality of Overholt, elements which at once charms and mystifies the most expert whiskey people -- these indefinable ingredients which are sluiced from the mountains by the springs of the “Yough,” the strength of the soil and limestone in the grain, the stored-up sunshine and the soaked-up moisture of the mountain fogs. With these things in mind, one can twirl a small glass of this whiskey against the light, and discover that a drink is more than a drink! “A good whiskey in its own right; a whiskey of heavy body; good for ‘cutting,’” is a curt, modern appraisal. But to know and appreciate Overholt, one must slip back through a century and a quarter (and even more), and in fancy follow the ruminations of the young Abraham Overholt, as he toiled at his loom and spun dreams as well as cloth.

Of the man, Abraham Overholt, it is recorded that he was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on April 19, 1784, and he died in Fayette County [inaccurate -- Abraham died at his farm in West Overton, Westmoreland County], Pennsylvania, on January 15, 1870. It is simply put and sincerely written that, “He was a firm character, but a gentle man. He maintained great order in his business and method in his affairs, and had a clear vision and abiding confidence in the future. He had an abounding energy, always was punctual, and never disappointed a creditor. His reputation for straightforwardness in his dealings with employees spread throughout the countryside. Public-spirited, he was among the first in community buildings, and was an early advocate and supporter of the public school system. His estate paid to his heirs $350,000.

In 1809, the year before he began distilling as a business, Abraham married Maria Stauffer, daughter of Rev. John and Elizabeth Stauffer [inaccurate -- Maria was the daughter of Abraham Stauffer (farmer & Mennonite minister) and Anna Nissley], who survived him four years. They had these children: Henry, Anna, Jacob, Abraham, Elizabeth, Martin, Christian, and John. All the Overholts were Mennonites.”

Herald Of Truth - Volume VII, Number 3
March, 1870, page 46-47

On Saturday morning January 15th, at his residence in East Huntingdon township, Westmoreland county, Pa., ABRAHAM OVERHOLT, in the 86th year of his age. He arose in the morning in usual health and took the lantern and went out, and not returning, the family went to look for him and found him in an out-house and the lamp of life almost extinguished. He was buried on the 18th in the Mennonite burying ground in said township, followed by a large concourse of relatives and friends. The occasion was improved by ____ Woodbury of the Baptist church in the English language, and by Bro. Blough in German. Bro. Overholt was a faithful member of the Mennonite church for many years, and the church has great reason to mourn for him. His seat was seldom vacant at public worship, and he was one of the most benevolent men the church had. When any benevolent purpose demanded it he was always willing and ready to give of his abundance. C.S.


Karen’s Branches

Karen Rose Overholt Critchfield

1. Marcus Oberholtzer
m. (----) Elizabeth [-name?-] (c.1664 - )
7 Children
Jacob, Henry, Daughter [Nanny?], Marcus,
Samuel, Elizabeth, MARTIN.

2. Martin Oberholtzer (1709-1744)
m. (1736) Agnes Kolb (1713-1786)
5 Children
Barbara, HENRY, Maria, John, Martin.

Agnes Kolb Oberholtzer (1713-1786)
m. 2nd (----) William Nash (1696-1760)
4 Children
Elizabeth, Joseph, Benjamin, Abraham.

3. Henry Oberholtzer/“Overhold” (1739-1813)
m. (1765) Anna Beitler (1745-1835)
12 Children
Agnes, Maria, Jacob, Anna, Martin,
Barbara, Elizabeth, Henry, Sarah,
ABRAHAM, Christian, Susanna.

4. Abraham Overholt (1784-1870)
m. (1809) Maria Stauffer (1791-1874)
8 Children
Henry, Anna, Jacob, ABRAHAM,
Elizabeth, Martin, Christian, John.

Elizabeth Stauffer Overholt (1819-1905)
m. (1847) John W. Frick (1822-1888)
6 Children
Maria, Henry Clay, Anna, Aaron,
J. Edgar, Sallie.

5. Abraham Stauffer Overholt (1817-1863)
m. (1844) Mary Ann Newmyer (1824-1877)
4 Children
GEORGE, John, Norman, May.

6. George Washington Overholt (1845-1908)
m. (1891) Agnes G. Riffle (1859-1933)
2 Children
GEORGE, Mary Elizabeth (1897-1916).

7. George Frederick Overholt (1892-1966)
m. 3rd (----) Esther Mae Willis (1896-c.1928)
2 Children
(ARTHUR) FREDERIC, Ralph (1927-1990).

8. (Arthur) Frederic John Overholt (1924-1985)
m. 1st (1947) Rose Joann Plocido (b.1929)
5 Children
Michael, KAREN, Frederic, Duane, Stephanie.
Michael (3 sons/2 daughters), Karen (1 son),
Frederic (1 son/1 daughter), Duane (1 son),
Stephanie (1 daughter).

9. Karen Rose Overholt (b.1949)
m. 2nd (1987) James Wilson Critchfield, Jr. (b.1961)
1 Child

10. Matthew Aaron Critchfield (b.1989)

~~ Updated June 5, 2006 ~~

END OF PART III -- Go to Addenda, Part I, or go back to "Karen's Branches"